Psychology & Sociology
One type of learning is associative learning, which occurs when an association forms between two events, one being a behavior and the other a reward or punishment. Examples include classical conditioning and operant conditioning. In contrast, non-associative learning does not rely on rewards or punishments to change a behavior's frequency. The two types of non-associative learning are habituation and sensitization.
Observational learning is when one learns a behavior by watching and copying others, with latent learning being a specific type of observational learning where someone unintentionally learns something without realizing they've learned it. The biology behind learning may involve mirror neurons and long-term potentiation, a process that strengthens the connection between two neurons the more frequently they're activated, enabling learning and memory.
<ul> <li>Introduction to learning types</li> <li>Associative learning <ul> <li>Occurs when an association forms between two events</li> <li>Examples: Dog drooling at sound of bell, dog sitting when hearing "sit"</li> <li>Two main forms: Classical and operant conditioning</li> </ul> </li> <li>Non-associative learning <ul> <li>Does not involve pairing a reward or punishment to change frequency of a behavior</li> <li>Two main types: Habituation and sensitization</li> </ul> </li> <li>Observational learning <ul> <li>Learning by watching and copying others</li> <li>Latent learning: Unintentional learning without realizing it</li> </ul> </li> <li>Biology behind learning <ul> <li>Mirror Neurons: Fire when you do a behavior or watch someone else do it</li> <li>May be important for observational learning and empathy</li> <li>Long-term potentiation: Synaptic connections grow stronger with frequent use</li> <li>Long-term depression: Weakening of synapses</li> <li>Pruning: Removes unused synapses to make the brain more efficient</li> </ul> </li> </ul>
Both classical conditioning and operant conditioning are forms of associative learning. Classical conditioning, first discovered by Ivan Pavlov, involves learning the association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus, leading to a conditioned response. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is the process of learning the relationship between a specific behavior and its consequences, either through reinforcement (receiving something positive or avoiding something negative) or punishment. It was first described by B.F. Skinner.
Non-associative learning focuses on the behavioral modification produced by the repeated exposure to a stimulus. Habituation and sensitization are two types of non-associative learning. Habituation is the decrease in responsiveness due to repeated exposure to a stimulus. For example, humans often cease noticing a constant noise, like that of an air conditioner, after some time. Sensitization, on the other hand, is an increased response to a stimulus resulting from repeated exposure to an arousing or aversive event. An example of sensitization is when someone becomes increasingly sensitive to a loud noise after being exposed to it several times.
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a cellular mechanism underlying the formation and consolidation of memories in the brain. LTP involves the strengthening of the synapses between neurons over time. When an association between stimuli or events is made, the synapse's efficiency increases, making it more likely for the neurons to fire together when the stimulus is repeated. Therefore, LTP plays a significant role in the formation of different types of learning, particularly in associative and non-associative learning.
Observational learning, also known as modeling or social learning, occurs when individuals learn by observing the behaviors and actions of others. This type of learning is significant in medical education, as it allows students to mimic the techniques, behaviors, and practices of experienced professionals. Medical students often engage in shadowing or clinical rotations, where they observe and learn from experienced healthcare professionals. Observational learning is a crucial aspect of medical education because it enables students to assimilate practical knowledge, develop essential healthcare skills, and adapt professional values and attitudes.
Latent learning refers to learning that may not be immediately reflected in behavioral changes but becomes visible once the right conditions or incentives are in place. This type of learning demonstrates that not all types of learning result in an immediate, observable change in behaviors, which challenges the traditional perspectives of behaviorism. Latent learning emphasizes the importance of cognitive processes and internal representations in understanding learning processes and outcomes. It shows that learners can acquire knowledge and develop mental maps or schemas without direct reinforcement or the immediate presence of a particular stimulus.