The trigeminal nerve (CN V) has both sensory and motor functions and is vulnerable to various pathologies. Dormant viruses like herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) can reactivate from their sanctuary in the trigeminal ganglia. VZV can also lay dormant in the dorsal root. One potentially serious outcome is herpes zoster ophthalmicus, a painful vesicular rash affecting the V1 dermatome that can lead to acute keratitis and, in severe cases, blindness.
Injuries affecting the trigeminal nerve can come from various sources. An orbital floor fracture could damage the infraorbital nerve, a branch of V2, leading to sensory deficits in the cheek, upper lip, and upper teeth. Dental procedures might injure the inferior alveolar nerve, a branch of V3, causing sensory loss in the lower lip, lower teeth, and chin. Motor lesions involving V3 result in the jaw deviating toward the affected side. Trigeminal neuralgia can cause recurrent episodes of acute, shock-like pain primarily affecting V2 and V3, while conditions such as temporomandibular disorder increase the sensitivity of V3, causing symptoms like jaw pain and tinnitus.
The trigeminal nerve, also known as cranial nerve V, is a complex nerve that serves vital sensory and motor functions in the face. It is the main nerve responsible for facial sensation, including touch, pain, and temperature, and also controls the muscles involved in chewing. The nerve is divided into three major branches: V1 (ophthalmic), which handles sensation in the upper part of the face; V2 (maxillary), responsible for the midface; and V3 (mandibular), which takes care of both sensory and motor functions in the lower face. Each of these branches has further subdivisions, making the trigeminal nerve an intricate network essential for a wide range of facial functions.
Dental procedures, particularly interventions in the mandibular area, can inadvertently damage the inferior alveolar nerve, a branch of the V3 division of the trigeminal nerve. This nerve is crucial for providing sensation to the lower lip, lower teeth, gums, and chin as well as muscles of mastication.
Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) have the ability to establish latent infections in the trigeminal ganglia, which house the cell bodies of the sensory neurons for the trigeminal nerve. Upon reactivation, these viruses can lead to various clinical manifestations affecting the face and eyes. For example, reactivation of VZV can cause herpes zoster ophthalmicus, affecting the V1 dermatome and leading to a painful vesicular rash and potentially severe ocular complications.
An orbital floor fracture can damage the infraorbital nerve, a branch of V2. Symptoms include a loss of sensation in the cheek, upper lip, and upper teeth and gums. Additionally, the injury may cause reduced vertical gaze due to the entrapment of the inferior rectus muscle..
Trigeminal neuralgia is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of acute-onset, shock-like pain primarily in the V2 and V3 distribution of the trigeminal nerve. The pain is so severe that it can affect quality of life and is often triggered by minor stimuli like chewing or brushing teeth. Temporomandibular disorder involves increased sensitivity of V3, leading to jaw pain, tinnitus, and muffled hearing.